Scheduled Monument record MDR373 - Neolithic settlement, Lismore Fields, Buxton
Type and Period (5)
- SETTLEMENT (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
- LONGHOUSE (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC) + Sci.Date
- LITHIC SCATTER (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
- BOUNDARY POST (part of post alignment, Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC) + Sci.Date
- PIT (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC) + Sci.Date
Excavation of a Neolithic settlement was undertaken in 1984-6. Various features, rectilinear and circular were uncovered. One of the rectangular features was divided into compartments, each of which contained a hearth. They may have been separate structures or an extension of one initial structure. (1) The unexcavated field to the north of the excavated area has been scheduled. (2) Excavations revealed possibly three rectangular post-built structures, all of similar size and internal layout. Each appears to be divided internally into roughly equal halves. Two of the structures are virtually end-to-end. One of the structures produced a virtually complete Grimston style bowl from the fill of an associated pit. This and the associated flintwork appear to be Earlier Neolithic. Radiocarbon dating of materials from post-holes in two of the structures are consistent with Earlier Neolithic dates. (3) In a review of the radiocarbon dating Barnatt states that the site produced the best radiocarbon sequence for a fourth millennium settlement in Britain. The dates suggest that Building 1, at between 3800 and 3650 BC, was earlier than Building 2 (3650 and 3350 BC). He also suggests that Building 2 was more or less contemporary with one of the large post alignments and three of the four pits that were sampled. (4) Palynological analysis of three peat cores and one buried soil profile from Lismore fields were subjected to pollen analysis. This revealed that Lismore Fields had been continuously exploited by man since the Mesolithic. The site has possibly the earliest record for cereal cultivation so far found in the British Isles. (5) During 1985-6 Trent & Peak Archaeological Trust excavated the remains, in the form of postholes and slots, of two Neolithic longhouses in the Lismore Fields area of Buxton. Building 1, the earlier of the two longhouses, measured 15m by 5m and appears to have been divided into four roughly equal chambers via partitions running in from the sidewalls. Based upon internal layout and comparison with other longhouses, entrances between the chambers were probably located along the centre of the building. The central partition appears more substantial than the others, suggesting that the building might be interpreted as two successive structures of the same modular design, or as an initial 7.5m by 5m building which was later extended. Building 2 has a similar plan to each of the halves of Building 1, further supporting this interpretation. One of the largest cereal assemblages from any earlier Neolithic site in England was found within the remains of Building 1, as well as remains of wild resources such as hazelnut shells, together with worked flint and earlier Neolithic pottery. These two buildings represent the only convincing earlier Neolithic longhouses found in the Peak District and two of the best preserved examples discovered in Britain as a whole. (6) A single broken mesolithic or early neolithic flintv blade was unearthered to the rear of a house in 2010. <7>
- --- SDR24598 Unpublished document: 1986. Lismore Field, Buxton: 1985 Summary Report.
- --- SDR24599 Unpublished document: Jones, G. Charred Plant Remains from the Neolithic Settlement at Lismore Fields Buxton.
- --- SDR24600 Article in serial: Davies, S. 2009. The Early Neolithic Longhouses at Lismore Fields, Buxton: A Digital Landscape Modelling Analysis.
- <1> SDR6901 Article in serial: Garton, D. 1987. Current Archaeology, 103. Part no. 103, pp 250-253.
- <2> SDR18392 Scheduling record: English Heritage. 1988. Scheduling Notification. 278.
- <3> SDR18393 Bibliographic reference: Garton, D (TPAT). 1991. Neolithic Settlement in the Peak District: Perspective and Prospects.
- <4> SDR18418 Article in serial: Barnatt, J (PPJPB). 1995. 'Neolithic and Bronze Age radiocarbon dates from the Peak District: a review', Derbyshire Archaeological Journal. Vol 115, pp 5-19.
- <5> SDR16429 Unpublished document: Wiltshire, P. 1991. Palynological Analysis of Lismore Fields, Buxton, Derbyshire. AM Lab. Report 18/91.
- <6> SDR21133 Article in serial: Davies, S. 2009. 'The Early Neolithic longhouses at Lismore Fields, Buxton: a digital landscape modelling analysis', Derbyshire Archaeological Journal. Volume 129, pp 1-16.
- <7> SDR24175 Unpublished document: Chatterton, R (ARS Ltd). 2010. 15 Lismore Park, Buxton, Derbyshire: Report on an Archaeological Watching Brief.
|Grid reference||Centred SK 0504 7317 (255m by 221m) (Approximate)|
|Civil Parish||BUXTON, HIGH PEAK, DERBYSHIRE|
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Record last edited
Jul 12 2020 10:46AM