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Landscape record MDR4728 - Kedleston Hall pleasure gardens and park, Kedleston

Type and Period (4)

Protected Status/Designation

Full Description

The landscape park and pleasure gardens, Kedleston Hall. The park is said to have been enclosed c. 1760 but an enclosure is shown on Saxton's survey of 1597. The Pleasure Gardens lie to the south and west of the hall and date to the 18th century. They are contained by brick built Ha Ha wall and contain a summer house and orangery by Robert Adam. The partly intact 18th century landscape by Adam (part of it is now a golf course) includes the Serpentine lake and islands, the bridge and cascade of 1769-70, the fishing house and boat house of c.1770, the bath house c.1761, the Gothic Temple 1759-60, and the lion's mouth fountain c.1763. A turnpike road and earlier medieval village were removed and rebuilt north of the park in 1760. (1) Kedleston Hall park and gardens were added to the English Heritage Register of Historic Parks and Gardens in 1984. The registered area was extended in 2001 to include Ireton Gardens to the north and was further extended to the north-east in 2002. The park and gardens were laid out by Robert Adam during the period 1759-1775. The Pleasure Grounds on the north side of the park have early to mid 18th century, or possibly even earlier, origins. (2) Together with the Pleasure Gardens, Kedleston Park is listed as Grade I in the English Heritage Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest. (4, 5) Kedleston Hall, with its surrounding parkland, is one of the best-known National Trust properties in Derbyshire. However, this is the most recent phase of the manor's history. The manor and vill were at Domesday part of the holding of Henry de Ferrers. The Curzon's held it from the 12th century until 1986, when it was gifted to the National Trust with an endowment and an agreement that the family would continue to live in the north-east pavilion. The early capital messuage, vill and church were all in close proximity to the road from Derby, which passed in front of the present house. Earthworks and ridge and furrow from this settlement can be seen in the 18th century parkland. The park appears to have developed in at least three stages. The map on page 101 shows an early park stretching from the Cutler Brook as far as Park Nook Far; it is shown in this position on John Speed's map of 1610 and this is where the best examples of ancient oaks are to be found. This early park was enlarged to the north-west by the inclusion of two parcels of land; one shown as 'Old Park' on a 1764 survey of Kedleston by George Ingman in 1764 and the other by Hay Wood, part of the manor of Little Ireton, which was acquired by the Curzon's in 1721. After the new turnpike road was created, the roads re-aligned and the village removed, previous open fields were added to the park which then expanded as far as the parish boundary and Vicar Wood. There is a vast archive of material at Kedleston Hall which would repay further research to establish a more accurate chronology of the park development. (6) Investigations into the historical development of the gardens and grounds. The remains of several garden features were recorded and results show that traces of the layout from the 1700s onwards are still present, both below ground and above ground. Important new evidence has been gained to support the suggestion that Bridgeman's 1726 design was realised, even though it was very effectively removed during the implementation of subsequent garden designs. (7)

Sources/Archives (8)

  • --- Unpublished document: Evershed, R (Allen Archaeology). 2017. Archaeological Evaluation Report: Geophysical Survey by Magnetometry on Land at Keddelston Hall.
  • <1> Bibliographic reference: Anthony, J. 1979. The Gardens of Britain 6: The East Midlands. p 89-103.
  • <2> Article in serial: Country Life. 1913, 1978. Country Life, December 20th, 1913, and December 20th and January 26th, 1978.
  • <3> Bibliographic reference: Pevsner, N. 1953. The Buildings of England: Derbyshire, 1st edition.
  • <4> Bibliographic reference: English Heritage. Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England. Part 10: Derbyshire.
  • <5> Bibliographic reference: Marshall, G (The National Trust). 1989. National Trust Archaeological Survey : Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire. p 20-24, 152-157.
  • <6> Bibliographic reference: Wiltshire, M & Woore, S. 2009. Medieval Parks of Derbyshire. pp. 100-1.
  • <7> Unpublished document: ArcHeritage. 2015. Archaeological investigations, Kedleston Hall Gardens, Derbyshire.



Grid reference Centred SK 31356 40700 (2538m by 2603m)

Related Monuments/Buildings (0)

Related Events/Activities (4)

  • EDR3960
  • EDR3630
  • EDR3301
  • EDR4664

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Record last edited

Jun 7 2023 12:56PM

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