Scheduled Monument record MDR4948 - South Wingfield Manor House (remains of), Garner Lane, South Wingfield
Type and Period (3)
- EARTHWORK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
- CHAPEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
- MANOR HOUSE (Medieval - 1440 AD to 1460 AD)
[Centred at SK 37435479] Wingfield Manor House [G.T.] (In Ruins) (1) [SK 37485479] Chapel [G.T.] (In Ruins) [Centred at SK 37475484] Moat [G.T.] Wingfield Manor House: Historical Description: The building of the manor-house was begun some time between 1440-5 by Lord Cromwell. During his lifetime the reversion of the manor was sold to the 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury and, after Lord Cromwell's death, the Earl completed the house and resided there until his own death in 1460. The Shrewsburys held the manor until the death of the 7th Earl. Mary, Queen of Scots was imprisoned there in 1569 and in 1584-5. The house was besieged and damaged during the Civil War. In 1666 it was occupied by Imanuel Halton who converted the former banqueting hall into a two-storeyed dwelling. A member of the Halton family demolished much of the house in 1774. (2) Architectural Description: The house is 416 feet long and over 256 feet wide and consists of two courts. The outer, south court comprises the gatehouse, a large barn and the outer and inner walls of the west and east ranges respectively. The range dividing the two courts has a more or less symmetrical south front with a gateway flanked by turrets and large chimneys with a porch (?). At the west end is the Great Tower (72 feet high). The west and east ranges of the inner court are destroyed. The northern range contains the State Rooms and hall on an undercroft with a bay window at its dais end of the hall and a solar or parlour in a chamber at right angles to the hall. The range ends on the west in a confused group of kitchen and other rooms. (3) Earthworks Beyond the south-east angle of the south quadrangle the ancient earthworks thrown up for defence are still visible. Around the north side and the greater part of the east side of the north quadrangle is a dry moat which is not likely to have been a defence but probably the quarry for the rough stone of the building. (4) Wingfield Manor is scheduled as an ancient monument. (5) Published name confirmed (19) The ruin of Wingfield Manor House is in fair condition though trees and other vegetation are causing some damage to the masonry. It is accurately described by Authy. 3 and is mainly as shown on the plan by Auth. 15. Parts of the south-west walling of the outer court have been destroyed in erecting farm-buildings and a building on the outside of the east range of this court is obscured by a conservatory. See GPs: AO/59/172/5 - Barn from the north and AO/59/172/6 - Main gatehouse from the northeast. The 'chapel', identified at SK 37485479 by Authy. 15, is a very small ruined structure formed on an outer, garden wall and, is unlikely to be the chapel. It is not orientated to the east, is extremely small and has no ecclesiastical ornament or features. The chapel, if a separate entity, presumably stood east of the hall where other buildings have been completely destroyed but for the marks of their abutment against the hall. The farmhouse, occupied by Mr. R.W. Crichlow, is at the eastern end of the middle range. It preserves most of the original detail and has a modern north wing. The earthworks surrounding the castle probably have their origin in quarrying and levelling the hill-top on which the house stands. However, centred at SK 37475467 is a crescentic bank forming an outlying defence or barbican to the main gateway. It is placed on an artificial platform of spread earth. If this is an earthern defence then it suggests that the other earthworks, though originating in the preparation of the building-site, were utilized as a supplementary defence. The southern bank has been destroyed in recent years but on the west is a large, simple slope formed by levelling. On the north and northeast an irregular moat-like quarry has an earthern bank on its outer lip. On the east, tracks and other mutilations obscure any connection between the earthen barbican and northern earthworks. See GPs AO/59/172/7 - Earthern barbican from the north - and AO/59/172/8 - Quarry and outer bank from the northwest. A 25" AM Survey has been made of the Manor House and associated earthworks. At the time of field investigation, negotiations by the M.O.W. to take over guardianship of the ruins had broken down and an order to acquire compulsory guardianship is mooted. (20) Published survey (25" 1962) correct. Authority 20 correct. The site is now in the guardianship of the M.O.W. (21) The ruins of South Wingfield Manor House / The dwellinghouse, Wingfield manor / Barn at Wingfield Manor Note: Ruins included in Interim list. The dwellinghouse is spot listed. Circa. 1440. Built for Ralph Lord Cromwell. Famous example of a large late mediaeval house with towers and other features. Fine architectural details and a prominent feature of the landscape. The building has been falling into ruins since the Civil War and is now getting into very bad order. The two storey contemporary barn is now suffering very badly as a result of the breaking away of the stone roofing slabs and needs urgent attention. A.M. (unoccupied parts) 4/94 25-9-51 The ruins of South Wingield Manor House incorporating Manor Farmhouse, and an aisled outbuilding to the south (formerly listed as the ruins of South Wingfield Manor House, the dwelling house, Wingfield Manor, and barn at Wingfield Manor. Fortified medieval manor house. Built 1439-53, by Ralph, Lord Cromwell, who was Lord Treasurer between 1433 and 1443. Massive ashlar and rubble gritstone, with some tiled roofs. Double courtyard plan, with outer entrance gateways to south east corner of the south courtyard, and offices and quarters for the household in the south, east and west ranges. To the north, a cross range dividing inner and outer courtyards, with central gateway flanked by superior lodgings with hearths. The inner courtyard had further guest lodgings with hearths and garderobes in the west range, which included the 72ft high tower at the south end. The north range comprised a kitchen court at the west end, with kitchens and service rooms, below private apartments and a great chamber. From the kitchens, a passage led to the screens passage of the Great Hall, with its gabled entrance porch, oriel window at the dais end, and a vaulted undercroft. If built, the east range and a parlour to the Great Hall no longer survive. Save for the undercroft, the site is ruinous, but a roofed structure survives in each courtyard. North courtyard, south side: a farmhouse, east of the inner gateway, mid C18, with stone slated and pantiled roofs. South elevation with two massive projecting stacks, formerly serving the lodgings, one with C19 diagonal ashlar chimney, the second to the east smaller, and with a C19 plain cap. Generally with C20 windows, in old surrounds, one with a flush mullion to the east end. C20 infill between entrance tower and projecting stack to west below windows with chamfered and quoined surrounds. Continuous plinth, matching range to west of gateway. Gabled single storey porch, uncoped, with four centred arched head to entrance doorway, and C20 glazed door. Long slated catslide roof to rear elevation, incorporating traceried 2-light window. Attached three storeyed wing to east end with gable stack, and pantiled roof with stone slated eaves. South range, east end: aisled outbuilding thought to be the earliest building in the complex, providing workspace and accommodation for labourers. Coursed rubble gritstone, with ashlar dressings, coped east gable and a stone slated roof. Two storeys, five bays, with four centred arched doorway with quoined surround to the centre bay, the bays delineated by shallow stepped buttresses. Two 2-light chamfer mullioned windows, one to each floor. Two smaller openings, and the west bay rebuilt, with a quoined and chamfered surround to a first floor opening above a slit window. Interior: aisle arcades support a double purlin roof, the aisle post standing on 1 metre high stone pads, and with jowels to north and south faces to carry transverse floor beams and spurs to walls. Diminutive curved braces to transverse beams and tie beams. Arcade plates braced longitudinally with massive curved braces. Through purlins have curved wind braces, and support collar and tie beam trusses, rising from arcade plate. Coupled rafter roof. At the east end, hearths which are related to those in the adjoining gatehouse. In front of this, a shallow single bay floor with short posts and wall posts which are angle braced. History: after Cromwell's death, the manor was sold to the Earl of Shrewsbury and remained in the ownership of that family, during which time, Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned there. After the Restoration the astronomer, Immanuel Halton created a new house in the shell of the Great Hall. Scheduled Ancient Monument now in Guardianship. A Emery and M Binney, 'Wingfield Manor, Derbyshire, I & II'. Country Life 1982. (22-23) SK 374547 South Wingfield Manor. Excavations in advance of consolidation were constructed on two areas,the sub-floor levels of the basement below the solar,and the foundations of the south wall of the solar/kitchen complex. The latter area showed a sequence of eight constructional phases, the most significant of which were those of the present Manor, and of a hitherto undetected pre-manor complex of stone buildings.This pre-manor structure seems to be of 14th century date, and include a basement room, a kitchen (?) hearth and well housing, all of which lie askew to the alignment of the 15th century Manor. (24) Excavation of pre-manor structures uncovered a bastion and a substantial stone wall indicating that the earliest phase at South Wingfield may have been fortified. (25) Additional references. (26-29)
- <1> SDR12065 Map: OS 6" 1921.
- <2> SDR7809 Article in serial: Cox, J. 1886. 'On the manor house of South Winfield', Derbyshire Archaeological Journal. Volume 8, pp 65-78. p65-78.
- <3> SDR190 Bibliographic reference: Pevsner, N. 1953. The Buildings of England: Derbyshire, 1st edition. p217-9.
- <4> SDR15051 Bibliographic reference: Ferrey, E B. 1870. South Winfield Manor.
- <5> SDR716 Scheduling record: Ministry of Works. 1958. Ancient Monuments of England and Wales. 27227. Cat. No. 32.
- <6> SDR4207 Article in serial: Tipping, H (Country Life). 1915. Country Life, July 17th, 1915. pp 90-7 (plan, illust).
- <7> SDR5932 Bibliographic reference: Tipping, H A. 1921. English Homes, Period I, Vol.1. pp 303-12, (plan, illust).
- <8> SDR15939 Bibliographic reference: 1903. V.C.H. Derby, Vol.1. pp 391-2.
- <9> SDR6972 Bibliographic reference: Gotch, J A. 1909. Growth of the English House. pp 68-78 (plan, illust).
- <10> SDR9046 Bibliographic reference: Thompson, A H. 1912. Military Architecture in England during the Middle Ages. pp 345-52 (plan, illust).
- <11> SDR7211 Bibliographic reference: Blore, T. 1793. An History of the Manor, and Manor-House, of South Winfield, in Derbyshire.
- <12> SDR16313 Bibliographic reference: Edmunds, W. 1904. Winfield Manor.
- <13> SDR5592 Bibliographic reference: Turner, T H. 1858. Domestic Architecture in England, Pt.2,. pp 222-4.
- <14> SDR1524 Article in serial: Cox, J. C. and Ferrey, B. E.. 1885. Archaeology Journal. Volume 42. pp 498-500..
- <15> SDR1526 Article in serial: Hope, W. St. J.. 1914. Arch Journal. Vol. 71, pp 369-370.
- <16> SDR7796 Article in serial: Errington, J R. 1852. Journal of the British Archaeol. Assoc.. Vol. 7, pp 367-374.
- <17> SDR7795 Article in serial: Mitchell-Withers, J B. Journal of the British Archaeol. Assoc.. Vol. 10 (NS).
- <18> SDR7910 Article in serial: Hanbury, W. 1948. 'A note on Wingfield Manor House', Derbyshire Archaeological Journal. Vol. 68, pp 37-41.
- <19> SDR6470 Personal Observation: F1 WCW 28-JUL-59.
- <20> SDR6634 Personal Observation: F2 WCW 31-JUL-59.
- <21> SDR6652 Personal Observation: F3 BHS 10-JUN-66.
- <22> SDR5541 Bibliographic reference: DOE(HHR)Belper RD, Derby June 1962, 24..
- <23> SDR5548 Bibliographic reference: DOE(HHR)Dist of Amber Valley, Derby, Aug 1985, 48..
- <24> SDR5863 Bibliographic reference: East Midlands Committee of Field Archaeologists. 1979-1982. East Midlands Archaeological Bulletin, 1979-1982. Volume 13. Courtney, T W, p 6.
- <25> SDR9003 Article in serial: 1981. Medieval Archaeol. Journal. Vol. 25, p. 216.
- <26> SDR1567 Article in serial: Emery, A. 1985. Archaeol J. Vol 142, 276-339.
- <27> SDR13232 Bibliographic reference: M Thompson. 1977. 'The construction of the manor at South Wingfield', Problems in Economic & Social Archaeology. pp 417-438.
- <28> SDR15566 Index: TPAT 2284.
- <29> SDR18878 Article in serial: Kirkham, N. 1973. 'Wingfield Manor in the Civil War', Derbyshire Miscellany. Vol VI, pt 5, pp 139-152.
|Grid reference||Centred SK 3742 5473 (179m by 236m) (Centre)|
|Civil Parish||SOUTH WINGFIELD, AMBER VALLEY, DERBYSHIRE|
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Record last edited
Aug 28 2020 10:32AM