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Monument record MDR5931 - Deer Park and gardens (site of), Sutton Scarsdale Hall, Sutton Cum Duckmanton

Type and Period (3)

Protected Status/Designation

  • None recorded

Full Description

At Sutton-in-the-Dale [Sutton cum Duckmanton] there was a deer park belonging to the Leakes and to Lord Ormond in 1817. (1) Sutton-cum-Duckmanton is a joint parish and township in the hundred of Scarsdale. Sutton, designated Sutton-in-the-Dale, is now more generally known as Sutton Scarsdale. The manor of Sutton passed by marriage to the Leakes, temp. Henry IV. The Hall stands within a park of nearly 300 acres. (2) Sutton Parke Corner occurs as a place name in 1630. (3) 'Sutton Scarsdale was imparked, as it now stands, in the 17th century. The 260 acres contain about 100 fallow deer and some black sheep from the Faroe Isles. There are several fine old oaks, and a good avenue of elm and limes'. (4) The park is completely surrounded by a drystone wall, c. 1.5 m. in average height and 0.3 m. thick. It has a semi-circular coping formed from roughly-worked stone. Its composition is remarkably consistent and only in the area of the modern hamlet has it been damaged or broken. Drystone walling of similar appearance is used for field-walling in the area and the park wall is probably comparatively recent, poss. 18/19th century, as it lacks the massive character of the few medieval stone park walls known to this investigator. The interior of the park has been open-cast mined for coal. It is now being restored to farmland. (5) Condition report of authority 3 correct, however it is considered that this is probably the original 17th century wall - certainly in its lower stages if not in entirety. (6) A plan of the park in 1828 shows, among other things, a series of large ponds - the Low Pond, the Great Pond and the Swan Pond - and a string of smaller ponds, two tree-lined avenues, a deer paddock and deer house and the park gate. (8) The park was described in 1827 as being 'embellished with fine plantations and spacious fish-ponds'. (9) It appears to have originally been laid out in the early 18th century by John Christian, described as 'gentleman gardener' on a lead plate inscribed with the names of the architect and craftsmen who worked on the house, which was begun to be rebuilt in the year 1724. (10) 'The gardens of the early 18th century were as distinct creations as the great houses … that dominated them; and the terraced gardens conditioned by the lie of the ground, the great stone and brick enclosing walls set with stone balls and urns, and the broad pathways of Sutton are as characteristic as the facades of the house. Many of the garden ornaments, such as the set of great marble vases, were brought from Trentham, the stone vases with lead handles, by the 'silver' border, from the demolished Northumberland House; the two gates of Spanish ironwork were, however, set up in their places by Mr William Arkwright, the present owner. Perhaps the debts of the builder, Lord Scarsdale, stood in the way of waterworks or of elaborate planting schemes in which his generation delighted, for there is but one avenue and traces of a smaller avenue to diversify the opening rolling outlook from the gardens.' (11) Surrounding the house on three sides was the ha-ha wall separating the grounds from the Deer Park, with its herd of deer and Deer Barn. Lack of an abundant water supply doubtless prevented the Earl from indulging in elaborate waterworks which were then so fashionable, and he was satisfie with three large ponds, and several smaller ones situated in the Deer Park, which was diversified by a series of copses near the large pond, groups of trees and two delightful avenues. In close proximity to the Hall were at least two ice-houses, several small ponds and narrow stone-lined circular wells approximately 52 ft in depth. (12) Well documented in the 18th and 19th centuries, though it is now arable land. Sutton was one of four manors in the north-east Derbyshire held by Roger de Poitou after the Conquest, by the early 13th century these became the property of Robert de Harestone , with the under-tenant of William de Sutton. (13) Sutton Scarsdale Park (as of 1892): owner- William Arkwright, esquire, acreage- about 260 acres, fence- stone wall, water supply- artificial, number of fallow deer- from 80 to 100, varying, black sheep from the Faroe Islands, a fine avenue of elms and limes, some fine oaks scattered about, imparked in the 17th century. (14)

Sources/Archives (14)

  • <1> Bibliographic reference: Shirley, E. 1867. English Deer and Deer Parks. p171.
  • <2> Bibliographic reference: Bulmer, T and Co.. 1895. History, Topography and Directory of Derbyshire. p103-4.
  • <3> Bibliographic reference: Cameron, K. 1959. 'The Place-Names of Derbyshire, Part II', English Place-Name Society. p310.
  • <4> Bibliographic reference: Cox, J. 1905. 'Forestry', Victoria County History, Derbyshire, Volume 1. p 424.
  • <5> Personal Observation: F1 WW 18-NOV-59.
  • <6> Personal Observation: F2 FC 05-SEP-66.
  • <7> Index: NDAT. 1837. 1837.
  • <8> Map: 1824. Sale plan of Sutton Park.
  • <9> Article in serial: Ackermann, R. 1827. 'Views of country seats: Sutton-Hall, Derbyshire, the seat of Richard Arkwright, Esq.', Repository. Volume 9, No. 49, plate 1.
  • <10> Bibliographic reference: Hadfield, M. 1980. British Gardeners. p 67.
  • <11> Article in serial: Jourdain, M (Country Life). 1919. 'Sutton Scarsdale, Derbyshire', Country Life. February 15, pp 166-173, illust..
  • <12> Bibliographic reference: Kettle, P. 1988. Sutton Scarsdale's Story. Part 1: the Leekes of Sutton.
  • <13> Bibliographic reference: Wiltshire, M & Woore, S. 2009. Medieval Parks of Derbyshire. pp. 172-173.
  • <14> Bibliographic reference: Whitaker, J. 1892. Deer Parks & Paddocks of England.



Grid reference Centred SK 442 692 (1477m by 1383m) Centre

Related Monuments/Buildings (0)

Related Events/Activities (3)

  • EDR2550
  • EDR828
  • EDR1221

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Record last edited

Feb 27 2024 4:32PM

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