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Scheduled Monument: TIDESLOW RAKE LEAD RAKE AND LIME KILN (1014591)

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Authority English Heritage
Other Ref SM Cat. No. 277
Date assigned Friday, September 26, 1986
Date last amended Monday, March 18, 1996


REASONS FOR DESIGNATION Lead rakes are linear mining features along the outcrop of a lead vein resulting from the extraction of relatively shallow ore. They can be broadly divided between: rakes consisting of continuous rock-cut clefts; rakes consisting of lines of interconnecting or closely-spaced shafts with associated spoil tips and other features; and rakes whose surface features were predominantly produced by reprocessing of earlier waste tips (normally in the 19th century). In addition, some sites contain associated features such as coes (miners' huts), gin circles (the circular track used by a horse operating simple winding or pumping machinery), and small-scale ore-dressing areas and structures, often marked by tips of dressing waste. The majority of rake workings are believed to be of 16th-18th century date, but earlier examples are likely to exist, and mining by rock-cut cleft has again become common in the 20th century. Rakes are the main field monuments produced by the earlier and technologically simpler phases of lead mining. They are very common in Derbyshire, where they illustrate the character of mining dominated by regionally distinctive Mining Laws, and moderately common in the Pennine and Mendip orefields; they are rare in other lead mining areas. A sample of the better preserved examples from each region, illustrating the typological range, will merit protection. Tideslow Rake is a well documented and visually impressive example and is a rare survival of a lead rake which has not been reworked in recent times. Although some of the stratigraphy of the site will have been disturbed by 18th century reworking of earlier exploration, it is nevertheless very well preserved and includes a wide variety of mining and ore-working features together with a limekiln for the on site production of quicklime for blasting. DETAILS Tideslow Rake is situated in the north western uplands of the limestone plateau of Derbyshire. The monument includes part of the lead rake and an associated lime kiln. The extreme western end of the rake is not included in the scheduling as the remains there have been disturbed by modern fluorspar extraction. The rake forms a complex linear leadworking feature comprising both mineworkings and associated ore works. The primary feature is a large opencut, representing the working of a lead vein. This extends intermittently for the length of the rake and is flanked all the way by shafts, heaps of dressing waste and spoil, numerous dressing and washing floors and platforms for winding gear. The whole site is criss-crossed with tracks leading between features and from off site. These include, in the area round Tides Low, two inclines which may have been used for rope-controlled movement of materials up and down the rake. In the same area, approaching from Tides Low barrow, there is a track with the remains of flanking walls. A similar walled track heads west at right angles to this along the top of Tideslow plantation. Towards the western end of the rake, there is a complex of very well preserved shaft mounds, each incorporating a shaft and an integral platform for winding gear. One of these, c.120m north of Tides Low, stands next to a shaft capped with railway sleepers and includes metalwork which will have been part of a winding mechanism. The same area also includes the foundations of a number of small rectangular buildings known as coes and used for purposes such as storage and ore-breaking. At least two of these coes, lying south east of the capped shaft noted above, contain mine shafts. One of these shafts is covered by a collapsed beehive cap. To the north of this complex of shafts and coes there is a large flat-topped earthwork incorporating a gin-circle. Gin-circles were formerly the sites of horse-powered winding gear or gins. Immediately west of the gin-circle is a narrow leat or watercourse which ends in a buddle and has other leats leading off at right angles. Buddles were constructions used to separate finer ore from lighter waste using a current of water. These water management features are associated with a group of 1m deep rectangular pits interpreted as settling tanks. Their occurrence near the gin-circle implies that the gin may have been used to raise water for the washing and separating of dressed ore. Coes in the same vicinity occur next to small dressing or washing floors. In addition, there is a triangular pond downslope to the east which has also been interpreted as a settling tank used in the separation of ore from waste deposits. An incline leading east round the south side of the pond eventually meets up with another track crossing the rake from north to south. At the junction of these two thoroughfares there are the remains of a collapsed lime kiln of the type known as a `pudding' or `pie' kiln . It is clear that this structure was not built for occupation as the sides are too thick and the internal area too small. Quicklime was used on leadmining sites as a cheap alternative to gunpowder for blasting. A smaller structure, whose remains survive opposite the lime kiln, may have been a quicklime store. The vein at Tideslow Rake was exploited at various times between the 12th and 18th centuries but went out of use in c.1800 until parts were reworked in modern times. The reworked parts lie outside the scheduled area. The 18th century workings appear to be those on the high ground round Tides Low though it is likely that earlier workings were reworked at the same time. A unique series of legal agreements show that five drainage tunnels or `soughs' were dug between 1648 and 1685. Excluded from the scheduling are a radio mast and the surface of the metalled farm track crossing the rake, although the ground beneath these features is included. SELECTED SOURCES Book Reference - Author: Cranstone, D. - Title: The Lead Industry, Step 3 Recommendation - Date: 1994 - Type: DESC TEXT - Description: Site: Derbyshire 46 Book Reference - Author: Harris, H. - Title: The Industrial Archaeology of the Peak District - Date: 1971 - Page References: 240 - Type: MENTION Article Reference - Author: Rieuwerts, J. - Title: A List of the Soughs of the Derbyshire Lead Mines - Date: 1966 - Journal Title: Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society - Page References: 36 - Type: MENTION Article Reference - Author: Walters, S.G. - Title: Clear-the-Way or Black Hillock Mine, Tideslow Moor - Date: 1980 - Journal Title: Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society - Page References: 330 - Type: MENTION Article Reference - Author: Walters, S.G. - Title: The Geology and Mines of the Black Hillock Area - Date: 1980 - Journal Title: Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society - Page References: 329 - Type: PLAN: SKETCH - Description: Fig.2

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Sources (2)

  • Scheduling record: English Heritage. 1986. Scheduling Notification: Tideslow Rake lead rake and lime kiln. List entry no. 1014591. SM Cat. No. 277.
  • Unpublished document: Bell, S (ARCUS). 2002. Tidelow Rake, Tideslow, Derbyshire: Summary of Archaeological Watching Brief.



Grid reference Centred SK 1523 7800 (1294m by 329m)
Map sheet SK17NE

Related Monuments/Buildings (1)

Record last edited

Apr 16 2019 1:23PM

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