REASONS FOR DESIGNATION
In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.
The Warren Romano-British settlement is a good example of its type. Few such sites exist in the Peak District and most other examples lie on the limestone rather than gritstone areas. The site will retain information on its construction and use.
The monument includes the remains of a Romano-British settlement located on the gritstone margins of the Peak District and visible remains include a series of terraces revetted by large orthostats (upright boulders). The site occupies sloping unimproved ground overlooking the Hood Brook to the north west on the northern margin of the present cultivated land. In addition, there are small irregular enclosures bounded by wide stone walls and also platforms indicating probable buildings. The present ruinous boundary wall to semi- improved fields to the south of the settlement is constructed from large orthostats and clearance material, indicating that the wall is also of Romano- British origin. The settlement contains a series of nearly level rectangular terraces facing downslope to the west and oriented north-south. Each of the terraces is revetted at the long downslope side by a row of substantial orthostats behind which are smaller stones and earth. A trackway passes through the south of the site. In addition to the rectangular terraces there are irregular enclosures, most of which appear to form small yard areas which are likely to have been associated with the domestic buildings of the settlement. The entire complex measures approximately 200m by 150m. A minor 20th century excavation revealed the probable site of a domestic building with Roman period pottery, a gritstone quern and pieces of chert, slag and burnt material. Traces of coursed stonework, revealed by the excavation, are visible and the excavation also exposed the careful setting of the row of othostats in the revetment wall. The small, irregular enclosures are bounded by either orthostat walls (where terraced) or by wide walls of double orthostats infilled with smaller stones which may well have been from the original clearance of the land. The walls are variable in width, but typically between 1m and 1.5m wide. The ground to the immediate south east of the site appears to have been partially cleared, leaving the more earthfast boulders in place. The now ruinous boundary wall to the south of the settlement complex is irregular and consists of a bank of cleared stones containing large orthostats, some forming a revetment to the embankment, others arranged as a double alignment. This wall is of similar construction to those within the settlement complex and to others found elsewhere in the region. In some instances, the wall respects features extending from the main settlement area and demonstrates that the boundary wall is also part of the Romano-British settlement. The site is interpretated as that of a farmstead of the Romano-British period. A few similar sites have also been discovered in the Peak District, for example, at Rainster Rocks, Brassington. However, farmsteads of this period are comparatively rare on the gritstone margins of the Peak. The site may originally have been more extensive as some of the field boundaries to the south and outside of the area of protection exhibit some of the characteristics of Romano-British construction. Excluded from the scheduling are all modern walls, gates, posts and fencing, although the ground beneath these features is included.
Book Reference - Author: Barnatt, J W - Title: The North Lees Estate, Outseats, Derbyshire: Archaeological ... - Date: 1991 - Type: DESC TEXT - Description: unpublished report, Peak Park
Other Reference - Author: Derbys. SMR - Title: North Lees, Romano-British settlement - Date: 1985 - Type: SMR
Book Reference - Author: Hart, C.R. - Title: The North Derbyshire Archaeological Survey to AD 1500 - Date: 1981 - Page References: 98 - Type: DESC TEXT