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Scheduled Monument: PREHISTORIC AND ROMANO-BRITISH BARROW AND MEDIEVAL ANIMAL PEN, 450M SOUTH EAST OF ROYSTONE GRANGE (1018474)

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Authority English Heritage
Other Ref SM Cat. No. 428
Date assigned Thursday, January 21, 1999
Date last amended

Description

REASONS FOR DESIGNATION Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age, with most examples belonging to the period 2400-1500 BC. They were constructed as earthen or rubble mounds, sometimes ditched, which covered single or multiple burials. They occur either in isolation or grouped as cemeteries and often acted as a focus for burials in later periods. Often superficially similar, although differing widely in size, they exhibit regional variations in form and a diversity of burial practices. There are over 10,000 surviving bowl barrows recorded nationally (many more have already been destroyed), occurring across most of lowland Britain. Often occupying prominent locations, they are a major historic element in the modern landscape and their considerable variation of form and longevity as a monument type provide important information on the diversity of beliefs and social organisations amongst early prehistoric communities. They are particularly representative of their period and a substantial proportion of surviving examples are considered worthy of protection. The bowl barrow 450m south east of Roystone Grange is unusual in that it contains evidence for reuse during the Romano-British period. Its importance is also enhanced by its association with evidence for contemporary settlement and surviving agricultural activities in the immediate area. The monument also includes the remains of a Medieval period animal pen forming a small but complete enclosure. This demonstrates well the continual use of the immediate landscape during several periods of settlement in the local area. The remains of the medieval period animal pen demonstrate well the continual use of the immediate landscape during several periods of settlement in the local area. DETAILS The monument includes the foundations of a medieval animal pen and an adjacent Bronze Age bowl barrow which also contains evidence for later Romano-British burials. The barrow and animal pen stand on a hill crest, overlooking Romano-British and medieval field systems and settlements in the Roystone Grange area. The medieval animal pen survives as a small rectangular enclosure in the north east corner of a larger field. Two sides of the enclosure now underlie the boundary walls of a more recent and larger field, although the foundations of the later walls include medieval fabric. The pen measures approximately 12m by 7m. The two exposed medieval wall fragments survive as little more than foundation levels built of large dolomitised limestone boulders. The enclosure is interpreted as an animal pen associated with the medieval grange which was situated a few metres to the west and occupied from the late 12th century. To the immediate west of the animal pen is a prehistoric bowl barrow measuring approximately 15m by 12.5m and standing between 0.9m and 1.5m high. The north western side of the mound has been slightly eroded by small-scale quarrying. It was partially excavated during the 1970s and was found to contain a cist formed by limestone slabs located slightly off-centre. Several burials are recorded ranging from an extended inhumation to the disarticulated remains of several individuals. In addition there is evidence of several cremation deposits within the mound, together with animal remains. Pottery associated with some of the burials indicates that the primary use of the barrow was during the Bronze Age. However, finds, especially in the western side of the barrow, are identified as Romano-British, including characteristic metalwork and pottery of this period. The barrow also lies on a hilltop central to a large area of land enclosed during the Romano-British period and is presumed to have been reused at this time by the people living and farming nearby. All gates and gateposts are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath is included. Also excluded are the modern enclosure walls standing on the remains of two sides of the medieval animal pen. However the foundation courses and the ground beneath the walls are included, together with a 2m margin. The wall foundations are included because of their medieval origins. SELECTED SOURCES Book Reference - Author: Barnatt, J. W. - Title: Peak District Barrow Survey - Date: 1989 - Page References: 10:4 - Type: DESC TEXT - Description: unpublished survey archive Book Reference - Author: Hodges, R. - Title: Wall-to-wall History: the story of Roystone Grange - Date: 1991 - Type: DESC TEXT

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Sources (1)

  • Scheduling record: English Heritage. 1999. Scheduling Notification: Prehistoric and Romano-British barrow and medieval animal pen, 450m south east of Roystone Grange. List entry no. 1018474. SM Cat. No. 428.

Map

Location

Grid reference Centred SK 2038 5649 (46m by 23m)
Map sheet SK25NW
Civil Parish BALLIDON, DERBYSHIRE DALES, DERBYSHIRE

Related Monuments/Buildings (2)

Record last edited

Aug 30 2013 1:56PM

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