REASONS FOR DESIGNATION
The East Moors in Derbyshire includes all the gritstone moors east of the River Derwent. It covers an area of 105 sq km, of which around 63% is open moorland and 37% is enclosed. As a result of recent and on-going archaeological survey, the East Moors area is becoming one of the best recorded upland areas in England. On the enclosed land the archaeological remains are fragmentary, but survive sufficiently well to show that early human activity extended beyond the confines of the open moors. On the open moors there is significant and well-articulated evidence over extensive areas for human exploitation of the gritstone uplands from the Neolithic to the post-medieval periods. Bronze Age activity accounts for the most intensive use of the moorlands. Evidence for it includes some of the largest and best preserved field systems and cairnfields in northern England as well as settlement sites, numerous burial monuments, stone circles and other ceremonial remains which, together, provide a detailed insight into life in the Bronze Age. Also of importance is the well preserved and often visible relationship between the remains of earlier and later periods since this provides an insight into successive changes in land use through time. A large number of the prehistoric sites on the moors, because of their rarity in a national context, excellent state of preservation and inter-connections, will be identified as nationally important.
Romano-British farmsteads are small agricultural units comprising groups of up to four circular or rectangular houses along with associated structures which may include wells, storage pits, corn-drying ovens and granary stores. These were sometimes constructed within a yard surrounded by a rectangular or curvilinear enclosure, and associated field systems, trackways and cemetaries may be located nearby. Romano-British farmsteads usually survive as buried features visible as crop and soil marks and occasionally as low earthworks. Often situated on marginal agricultural land and found throughout the British Isles, they date to the period of Roman occupation (c.AD 43-450). Romano-British farmsteads are generally regarded as low status settlements, with the members of one family or small kinship group pursuing a mixed farming economy. Excavation at these sites has shown a marked continuity with later prehistoric settlements. There is little evidence of personal wealth and a limited uptake of the Romanised way of life. As a highly representative form of rural settlement, all Romano-British farmsteads which have significant surviving remains will merit protection.
The Romano-British farmstead 475m east of Ladybower Inn survives in good condition with excellent potential for further remains beneath the ground surface. Very few Romano-British settlements are known within the gritstone areas of the Peak District. The monument consequently forms part of a small but particularly important resource for understanding settlement, agriculture and native culture during the period of Roman occupation.
The monument includes the remains of a farmstead situated on the northern fringe of Bamford Moor. The farmstead provides important evidence for settlement and agriculture during the Romano-British period.
The monument occupies a fairly level shelf, high on a north facing slope overlooking the Ladybower valley. The farmstead comprises three enclosures defined by drystone boundaries (between 1m and 3m in width and up to 1.2m in height) with occasional orthostatic or edge-set slabs. The largest enclosure measures approximately 35m by 25m and is irregular in shape. Attached to the large enclosure is a smaller sub-rectangular enclosure measuring approximately 20m by 15m. Substantial breaks exist in the north eastern sides of both enclosures, these are indicative of entrances. A third smaller enclosure is situated directly to the north east of the two attached enclosures. The small enclosure measures approximately 12m by 12m and is indicative of a house site, the surviving enclosure bank representing the walls of the building. Alternatively, the enclosure bank may have formed a yard around a smaller timber framed building. Discrete piles of stone and earthfast boulders are visible within and around the monument, some of which will represent hitherto unidentified features.
The farmstead is believed to have been occupied during the Roman period (AD 43-450), being dated by distinctive orthostatic walls which are frequently associated with Romano-British settlements in this region. The two larger enclosures are indicative of yards and may have have been used as stockpens, or comprised small garden plots. The monument is associated with a smaller contemporaneous farmstead located within view upon the opposite side of the Ladybower valley.
Book Reference - Author: Bevan, WJ - Title: DAAC Romano-British settlement survey - Date: 2000 - Journal Title: Illustrations - Volume: Vol 3 - Page References: Ill# 06
Book Reference - Author: Bevan, WJ - Title: DAAC Romano-British settlement survey - Date: 2000 - Journal Title: Illustrations - Volume: Vol 2 - Page References: 77-78
Book Reference - Author: Bevan, WJ - Title: Upper Derwent Archaeological Survey 1995-1998 - Date: 1998 - Page References: Ill# 63
Book Reference - Author: Bevan, WJ - Title: Upper Derwent Archaeological Survey 1995-1998 - Date: 1998 - Page References: 79-80