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Monument record MDR2285 - Watt's Grove Lead Mines, Eldon Hill, Peak Forest

Type and Period (5)

  • (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status/Designation

Full Description

SK 1096 8077 - 1242 8084: Watts Grove Vein: The crushing wheel has a paved path. (4) Line of 'bell-pit' type shaft hollows. Limited open cast work, but not on the scale of Dirklow. (6) An untouched rake, a linear feature similar to New Rake (3367) and Faucet Rake (11630). Watts Grove Mine is important for its gin circle and shaft with crushing circle, wheel and coe. Now rare, such features were once common. Lots of evidence for individual shafts along the vein, particularly south-west of Watts grove mine. These demonstrate the working of the rake by miners with access to several meers (1 meer = 29yds. Linear) of the vein at a time. This is completely different to the technique used further north in the Pennine lead field where such valley side rakes were worked via drift mines through the valley side. This reflects the inhibitions imposed by the Barmote Court system in Derbyshire, on workings of a large scale. (7) Watts Grove Lead Workings. This rake is a continuation of Dirtlow Rake to the east and Coalpithole Rake to the west. Shafts, trial holes and waste hillocks survive along the well preserved rake. It is unknown when the rake was first worked, although Dirtlow was probably mined in the medieval period and Coalpithole was first recorded in 1705. Mining probably ended by the late 19th century as the Ordnance Survey 1880 map records the workings as 'old'. (8) Scheduled. The monument includes the earthwork, buried, standing and rock cut remains of Watt's Grove Rake. The monument is linear in shape and runs east to west for approximately 1.45km along the south side of Eldon Hill, on the western slopes of Conies Dale. The continuous line of workings along the vein includes intermediate concentrations of areas of activity associated with Watt's Grove and Jowle, or Joule Grove mines. It is unknown when the rake was first worked, but Dirtlow Rake, from which Watt's Grove Rake branches, is thought to have been worked in the medieval period. The working of Jowle Grove is documented from at least 1789 and mining ceased by the late 19th century when the Ordnance Survey Map of 1880 describes the rake as `old'. The monument survives as a series of earthwork, buried and standing remains which include belland yard walls, ruined coes, open cuts, a bouse team, water channels, washing floors, leats, buddling dam, crushing floor, gin circles, climbing shafts, water storage pond and engine shaft. (9) Area of high priority lead mining remains. There is a crushing circle and a grilled engine shaft at otherwise disturbed ground within the belland yard at Jowle Grove. Immediately further west along the vein within the same belland yard as Jowle Grove, at Watts Grove, the hillocks are better preserved and there are various grilled/capped shafts, a ruined coe or shaft wall, a water storage pond and a gin circle. Going west, to the veins know as White Rakes, there is a belland yard around Smiler Mine with capped adjacent engine and climbing shafts, opencuts, a fine example of walling supporting deads in the vein, water storage/ore-dressing ponds and pits and a probable buddle dam. Further belland yards along White Rakes, now planted with trees, have shafts, a ruined coe, possible ponds and a probable gin circle. Nearby is a probable mine road. Opencuts are associated with early hillock reworking, possibly in the 19th century. There is a fine gin circle at Hurdlow End in a belland yard and further east there are reworked high hillocks at a second mine within a further belland yard. (10)

Sources/Archives (10)

  • <1> Article in serial: Green A H. 1887. The Geology of North Derbyshire (BGS).
  • <2> Bibliographic reference: Stevenson, I et al.. n.d.. The Geology of the country around Chapel-en-le-Frith.
  • <3> Article in serial: Chatburn, H E. 1962. 'The surface remains of Dirtlow Rake', Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society. Volume 1, Number 7. pp 22-26..
  • <4> Bibliographic reference: Hill, R (PPJPB). 1985. Peak Park Treasures. Rieuwerts, J; 1978; C87.
  • <5> Bibliographic reference: Ford, T & Rieuwerts, J. 1983. Lead Mining in the Peak District, 3rd edition. p 49, 52.
  • <6> Bibliographic reference: Hill, R (PPJPB). 1985. Peak Park Treasures. Rieuwerts, J; 1987; C253.
  • <7> Verbal communication: Rieuwerts, J. 1988. Pers. Comm..
  • <8> Unpublished document: Bevan, B (PDNPA). 1995. Perrydale, Peak Forest, Derbyshire, archaeological survey, 1995. No. 2, p 8.
  • <9> Scheduling record: English Heritage. 2000. Scheduling Notification. 29962. cat. no.: 473.
  • <10> Bibliographic reference: Barnatt, J. 2004. An Inventory of Regionally & Nationally Important Lead Mining Sites in the Peak District. Vol. 2: Corpus of Sites. No. 9, pp 16-19.



Grid reference Centred SK 1118 8074 (1460m by 255m) (Centred on)

Related Monuments/Buildings (0)

Related Events/Activities (1)

  • EDR3890

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Record last edited

Apr 23 2015 1:05PM

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