Large enclosure east of Bonsall Moor Lane with the greatest concentration of lead mine shafts in Derbyshire. There are traces of over 350 shafts in this area, of which over 200 are still open, mainly 12-28m deep (40 to 100 feet). There are extensive ancillary remains, tips, coes, etc. the total area is some 330m (1000ft) by 250m (800ft). (1).
Extensive surface manifestations of important underground workings. Underground there are many examples of different technologies used to mine ore over the centuries, reflecting the length of time this area has been exploited. These include fire setting, plug and feather, possibly lime blasting and later gunpowder blasting. The area is important geologically as the mineral filling in the veins shows wide variations from glacial meltout infill to Hydrothermal infilling and probably deep weathering of in situ deposits. Hangworm mine is important as it features in early discussions on the nature of the genesis of lava by Pilkington and Whitehurst, 1770 to 1790. Salters Way mine is important for the same reasons as it was visited by Pilkington and Whitehurst in attempts to confirm their hypotheses. (2).
The area contains a scheduled monument divided into two areas: 1) SK25225971 Immediately south of Bonsall Lane and includes numerous well preserved shafts/mounds which have been intensively worked. Some are stone lined. There is a gin circle nine to ten metres in diameter. In the south-east corner is a C shaped mound indicating where ore was loaded. Along Bonsall Lane are Bouse Teams, or store houses, visible 0.4 metres high and facing west. They were used to store the ore before processing on the adjacent dressing floor. They are an extremely unusual survival in Derbyshire. 2) SK25225941 Southern of the two scheduled areas this has been extensively worked. Many shafts and associated earthworks and ruined structures. In the north-east corner is a particularly large shaft, two metres in diameter, thought to be the well known Hangworm Mine. The shaft is stone lined and has a large gin circle. Several shafts have ruined coes. In the east are shallower workings running roughly north to south. They may be earlier. Mining took place here by at least 1745, when Hangworm was operating. Other mines have distinctive names such as Dirt Face and Have Nothing Grove. Techniques for sinking mines deeper were developed here. References in 1879 suggest a funnel-like structure was erected to direct the wind downwards for ventilation. At Hangworm a small sloping shaft feeding into the main shaft may have had a small enclosing structure at its mouth where a fire basket drew the air out of the mine. (8).
This site has been recorded as a high priority site. (11).
Site monitoring has been carried out and site appears not to be under threat. (12)
Personal Observation: Rieuwerts, J. 1988. Pers. Comm..
Bibliographic reference: Farey, J. 1811-17. A General View of the Agriculture and Minerals of Derbyshire.
Bibliographic reference: Pilkington, J. 1789. A View of the Present State of Derbyshire, Volume 1.
Article in serial: Rieuwerts, J. Derbyshire Lead Mining and Early Geological Concepts. 51-100.
Unpublished document: PhD thesis. A Technological History of the Drainage of the Derbyshire Lead Mines..
Bibliographic reference: Whitehurst, J. 1778. An Inquiry in to the Original State of the Formation of the Earth.
Index: Council for British Archaeology (CBA). CBA Industrial Archaeology Report Card. Bonsall Moor Mining Field.
Map: Ordnance Survey (OS). 1896-1900. OS County Series, 2nd edition (1st revision), scale 1:2500 (c. 25" to one mile). Derbyshire XXXIV.1.
Bibliographic reference: Barnatt, J. 2004. An Inventory of Regionally & Nationally Important Lead Mining Sites in the Peak District. Vol. 2: Corpus of Sites. p140, illus, Feature 102.
Unpublished document: Marriott, J (PDNPA). 2011. Scheduled Monument Monitoring Form: Gorseydale lead mines 300m N + 650m NW of Moor Farm.
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Centred SK 24998 59507 (627m by 588m)
BONSALL, DERBYSHIRE DALES, DERBYSHIRE
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Record last edited
Nov 12 2014 2:08PM
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