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Scheduled Monument record MDR3523 - Lumford Mill, west of Holme Hall, Bakewell

Type and Period (1)

  • (Georgian to Victorian - 1777 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status/Designation

Full Description

Grade II listed building [slightly to the south of the current mill] which was part of the cotton mill and now offices. It is dated from the late 18th century or very early 19th century. It was constructed of deeply-coursed dressed sandstone with a welsh slate roof. The exterior is three storeys, with an 8-window range. Richard Arkwright leased the site in 1777 and, after resolving difficulties over the water rights, built the mill for his son Richard. By 1821 it employed 350 people under the management of Richard and Peter Arkwright. It then had various later 19th century owners. The main mill building was rebuilt after a fire in 1868. (1, 2) Lumford cotton mill, built in 1777, the third of the Derbyshire Arkwright Mills. The original building was damaged in 1867 and rebuilt incorporating the earlier mill. It continued in use as a cotton mill until 1897. The 1827 water wheelcontinued in use until 1955. (4) The water management system is a scheduled monument. (5) To the north of the site there is a gasometer shown on the 1898 Ordnance Survey map. (6) The plans of the earlier mill are deposited in the Derbyshire Record Office. (7) Truncated remains of former Arkwright cotton mill, origninally of 1777, on the R. Wye, largely destroyed by fire 1868. The main surviving structure is a three storey gritstone buidling with slate roof to the left of the entrance. Only part of the one storey remains of the 18th century mill and an old gritstone chimney. (8) Lumford Mill was essentially a plain, T-shaped box in which all the mill's functions might be housed; this produced the characteristically early typological form in which the effective space of the working floors was reduced by the need to accommodate a stair and counting house (or similar room.) Lumford's water source ownership brought Arkwright into conflict with the Duke of Rutland, who owned adjacent lands and claimed that Arkwright had infringed his water rights. (9) A desk-based assessment was carried out in 2010 in advance of proposed development. (10) In 1777 Richard Arkwright leased a site next to the River Wye from Philip Gell and built a water powered cotton mill on the site. The original mill was probably a long, narrow, stone structure of 4 storeys. This mill was powered by a single water wheel driven by the flow via a leat from the River Wye. The flow of water must have been problematic, as a reservoir was sonstructed to try to ensure a constant flow. Later 2 additional reservoirs were added and Arkwright, or his eldest son, Richard II, engineered at least 3 changes to the course of the River Wye. This drew the Arkwrights into legal disputes with the Duke of Rutland over the flow of the river. In 1827 a larger water wheel was constructed By 1840 a new mill race had been excavated and the reservoirs filled-in. In 1852 a second wheel was added. However, it seems probable that by that time stream power was beginning to augment waterpower, as in 1844 a gas plant was constructed near the mill. The use of steampwer and the burning of coal on the site may have contributed to the outbreak of a major fire in 1868, which caused serious damage to the original mule spinning shed and left only a workshop, a single chimney some other buildings undamaged. Afterwards a new mule spinning shed was built on a part of the footprint of the original mill and by 1827 production resumed on a smaller scale. This mill closed in 1896, and two years later the site was purchase by a battery making firm. This company extended and altered the former mill site, building over the sites of the reserviors. This factory closed some time before 1970. (11)

Sources/Archives (11)

  • <1> Bibliographic reference: Harris, H. 1971. Industrial Archaeology of the Peak District. pp 105-106.
  • <2> Listed Building File: Historic England. 2011. The National Heritage List for England.
  • <3> Index: Council for British Archaeology (CBA). CBA Industrial Archaeology Report Card. Cotton mill, Bakewell, 1971.
  • <4> Index: North Derbyshire Archaeological Trust (NDAT). North Derbyshire Archaeological Trust Index: 0149. 0149.
  • <5> Scheduling record: English Heritage. 1991. Scheduling Notification. 12010. Cat. No.: 515.
  • <6> Map: Ordnance Survey (OS). 1896-1900. OS County Series, 2nd edition (1st revision), scale 1:2500 (c. 25" to one mile). Derbyshire XXIII.11.
  • <7> Bibliographic reference: Hill, R (PPJPB). 1985. Peak Park Treasures. C41, Sept. 1971.
  • <8> Bibliographic reference: Fowkes, D (ed.). 1997. Derbyshire Industrial Archaeology. A Gazetteer of Sites. Part IV. Derbyshire Dales.
  • <9> Article in serial: Menuge, A (RCHME). 1993. 'The cotton mills of the Derbyshire Derwent and its tributaries', Industrial Archaeology Reivew.
  • <10> Unpublished document: Strange, P. 2010. Lumford Mill, Bakewell: Archaeological Desktop Assessment for Litton Properties.
  • <11> Unpublished document: Grange, E (ARS Ltd). 2018. Lumford Mill, Riverside Business Park: Historic Building Recording.



Grid reference SK 21239 69066 (point)

Related Monuments/Buildings (0)

Related Events/Activities (2)

  • EDR5023
  • EDR5122

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Record last edited

Oct 1 2020 12:09PM

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